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convolvulus arvensis and wheat

Field experiments were carried out to investigate the control of field bindweed and winter wheat response to pyroxasulfone, metribuzin, dicamba, and a mixture of pyroxasulfone … Control of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) with postemergence herbicides. http://www.pfaf.org/user/default.aspx. Corolla funnel-shaped, pentamerous with 5 radial pubescent bands but not divided into distinct lobes, 10-25 mm long, 10-25 mm diameter, white or pink. Proceedings of an Indian Society of Weed Science International Symposium, Hisar, India, 18-20 November 1993. The bindweed moth Tyta luctuosa (Lep. Convolvulus arvensis var. British Crop Protection Council. Stamens 5, inserted on corolla tube. Shoots develop from adventitious buds on the deep root system at almost any depth down to 1 m. Above ground, the stems trail or climb by twining. The weed could be eliminated with an average of 16 cultivations. Schoenhals MG, Wiese AF, Wood ML, 1990. Above: Field Bindweed climbing up wheat stems on the edge of a French field Habitat. The world's worst weeds. Specific to Convolvulus spp. Galleon in 1990 and peas cv. This is done by competing for light and nutrients and even choking crops as it rapidly grows. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed … C. arvensis reproduces by producing seeds which may remain dormant in the soil for longer periods of time (20 years or more) (Holm et al., 1977; Americanos, 1994). Acta Agriculturae Shanghai, 5(3):51-58; 6 ref. Tóth P, Cagán L, 2005. In: Technical Bulletin, Agricultural Research Institute, Cyprus, 9 pp. It is a prostrate plant unless it climbs on an object for support. Given the presence of other defoliating herbivores on C. arvensis in North America, investigations on natural enemies that attack other parts of the plant would be more fruitful. Specific to C arvensis and Calystegia sepium. Uzbekskiĭ Biologicheskiĭ Zhurnal. ], 4-15. Heering DC, Pepper TF, 1991. A geographical atlas of world weeds. 32-35. Farmers actually refer to it as “the cancer of weeds” – an ironic … Flowers axillary, solitary or in cymes 2-3 on peduncles subequal to the subtending leaf; bracteoles linear, 2-4 mm long. Phillips and Timmons (1954) carried out research which showed that C. arvensis could be eliminated within two seasons with careful cultivation practices, provided all aerial shoots were cut completely within 12 days of emergence. Seed bank density, weed population dynamics and crop productivity were studied in wheat crop under different tillage treatments in a field experiment carried out during summer and winter seasons of 2012‒2013 and 2013‒2014. (1.9-2.5 cm) across and are subtended by small bracts. Mohyuddin AI, 1969b. Shallow cultivation implements using normal cropping practices (one to two cultivations in autumn) do little but spread C. arvensis and increase the density of shoots emerging in spring (Schweitzer et al., 1988). at Belleville, Ontario. Meyer LJ, 1978. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. 9-13. C. arvensis is considered a noxious weed in most of US states where it is prohibited in some of them (USDA-NRCS, 2016). https://gd.eppo.int/. And Calystegia spp. Flowers are approximately 0.75-1 in. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, 692 pp. The plant is also used as a flavouring in a liqueur (PFAF, 2016). Melbourne, Australia: Inkarta Press. Hongyuan T, Xuee W, Zi Y, 1989. �Q�/d }�0b28¬�]V4i������&�)��hjq��=M�A���F� �|l�2�Z�֮`Y�(�%�X7�d�`����b����Vw��Mȍ��ǭM���:d�E�\Zy C. arvensis is similar in appearance to a number of species within the same genus. They may then be dispersed greater distances by water. In this paper we present details concerning weed control in general, and the control of Convolvulus arvensis L., popularly called field bindweed (BERCA, 2004). Effect of the pre-emergence bioherbicide Phomopsis convolvulus on seedling and established plant growth of Convolvulus arvensis. uuid:b70addb7-c05d-46f9-b35f-daec7bbf3fbe Bindweed or Convolvulus arvensis is a commonly found weed and every farmer’s nightmare – damaging crops by wrapping itself around plants such as corn and wheat. Noxious Weeds of Australia. C. arvensis produces a long lived root system and up to 500 seeds per plant. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Khan M A, Fazli Wahid, Umm-e-Kulsoom, 2013. To investigate the major weeds of wheat in different agro-ecological zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Cucumber mosaic virus on pink Catharanthus. 1 0 obj <> endobj 2 0 obj <>stream There are several lists of European natural enemies of C. arvensis and evaluations of their potential as biological control agents (Rosenthal, 1980; Rosenthal and Buckingham, 1982; Wang and Kok, 1985). Gharabadiyan F, Jamali S, Yazdi AA, Hadizadeh MH, Eskandari A, 2012. EPPO Global database. Field experiments were carried out to investigate the control of field bindweed and winter wheat response to pyroxasulfone, metribuzin, dicamba, and a mixture of pyroxasulfone plus … Canadian Entomologist, 131(4):541-547. 2014, http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/index, http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm, Kamran Saleem, Arshad HMI, Babar MM, 2015. Weed control in wheat and barley in the Middle East. 44:9 pp. Morin L, Watson AK, Reeleder RD, 1989. The PLANTS Database. by Lorenzi H J, Jeffery L S]. Tyurebaev SS, 1981. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. Introductory Distribution and occurrence Botanical and ecological characteristics Fire ecology Fire effects Management considerations References INTRODUCTORY SPECIES: Convolvulus arvensis AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION … Competitive effects of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) in wheat, barley and field peas. 48 Green … 6 (4), 303-310. Stems slender, to 1.5m long, twining anticlockwise. Flowers are usually solitary; bracts 3mm long; sepals elliptic-circular o… More than 600 … Plants can also spread vegetatively from underground rhizome. The adaptation of weed plants to certain crops. A large proportion of seeds will remain dormant in the soil seed bank (Texas Invasives, 2016). Seeds germinate throughout the year if moisture is adequate but there are peaks of germination in spring, early summer and autumn. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Weed of the week. Wallingford, UK: CABI. Americanos P G, 1982. 12:131-146. Biocontrol News and Information. 2020-10-26T19:05:12+02:00 I:307-310. C. arvensis can cause economic losses by decreasing yield of agricultural and horticultural crops. Phillips W, Timmons F, 1954. The aim of the current study is to find effective solutions for Convolvulus arvensisL. In: Integrated weed management for sustainable agriculture. uuid:f08419d3-1fc4-4a45-898e-caaa14f988ca C. arvensis, commonly known as bindweed, is a climbing herbaceous perennial native to Eurasia. Proceedings of an Indian Society of Weed Science International Symposium, Hisar, India, 18-20 November 1993 Hisar, Haryana, India; Indian Society of Weed Science, Vol. 11:93-106. Differential susceptibility of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) biotypes to glyphosate. 79-82. Fruit a capsule, globular to ovoid with a persistent style base, breaking open irregularly. Rome, Italy: FAO, 95-99. Weed survey in sunflower in central-southern Buenos Aires province. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. PFAF, 2016. 41:133-143, Sherrick SL, Holt HA, Hess FD, 1986. Trotter) under Ethiopian conditions. are common in winter wheat, while the most frequently occurring weeds in spring wheat are C. album, C. arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Descurainia sophia, F. convolvulus, and Sonchus arvensis, and the grasses A. fatua and S. viridis (Kraehmer, 2016). Sheep and cattle (Sa'ad, 1967) readily graze C. arvensis. Integrated weed management system in United Arab Emirates. Longer-term control of the perennial root system is much more difficult and only appears possible with high rates of herbicides such as glyphosate (Wiese and Lavake, 1985), imazapyr (Schoenhals et al., 1990; Heering and Peeper, 1991; Matic and Black, 1994) and picloram plus 2,4-D (Humburg et al., 1981; Alcock and Dickinson, 1974). It also varies according to the timing of application of the herbicide (Davison and Bailey, 1974). C. arvensis has been reported as having a chromosome number of 2n=24, 48, 50, 78 (IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2015). Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University Press of Hawaii. Investigations into the nature and importance of weeds in sorghum in Yemen. http://www.cabi-publishing.org/bni. 3. Chapter 45. 2013, Holocarpha macradenia (Santa Cruz tarplant), US Fish and Wildlife Service, Proceedings of the V International Symposium on the Biological Control of Weeds, Brisbane, Australia. Bindweeds and their biological control. Weed Management for Developing Countries. Field experiments were conducted in Oklahoma to evaluate the effect of three imidazoli-none herbicides and metsulfuron on established field bindweed and hard red winter wheat The integration of some agronomic factors on grain yield of wheat at Njoro. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 2, p. 149. Natural enemies of Convolvulus arvensis in western Mediterranean Europe. Plant Protection Bulletin, Department of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Yemen Arab Republic, 2:13-17, Wang R, Kok LT, 1985. Weed hosts of root-knot nematodes in tomato fields. Insects from Calystegia spp. Uzbekskii Biologicheskii Zhurnal, No.2:20-21, EPPO, 2014. First report of foliar blight of, McClay AS, Littlefield JL, Kashefi J, 1999. Efficacy of Phomopsis convolvulus for control of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis). Organisms associated with the family Convolvulaceae and their potential for biological control of, https://www.na.fs.fed.us/fhp/invasive_plants/weeds/field_bindweed.pdf, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); habit by roadside. Personal communications and literature references indicate that programmes based on persistent use of 2,4-D or MCPA for at least 5 years also appears to have controlled the perennial root system. %PDF-1.6 %���� Effective control of C. arvensis with A. malherbae also requires additional management such as regular mowing and redistribution of mites. Walter H, 1981. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Vogelsgang S, Watson AK, Ditiimmaso A, Hurle K, 1998. Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992) report that C. arvensis is declared as a proclaimed weed under legislation in several states in Australia. C. arvensis has a number of medicinal properties and resins from the root may act as a diuretic and a laxative and tea made from leaves may be used to treat fevers and wounds (PFAF, 2016). Potential phytophages for the biological control of some weeds of Eurasian origin. Field Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) Control in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) With Herbicides' DAVID C. HEERING and THOMAS F. PEEPER2 Abstract. Online Key and Fact Sheets for Invasive plants. C. arvensis is a herbaceous perennial growing from a very deep root system. Lorenzi HJ, Jeffery LS(Editors), 1987. Proceedings of the Seventh East African Weed Science Conference, 1979., 4-15, National Parks Service, 2016. It is a major weed of field crops, (e.g. Stace CA, 1972. Establishment of, https://www.nps.gov/akso/NatRes/EPMT/Pages/Species_bios/Convolvulus%20arvensis.pdf, http://www.texasinvasives.org/invasives_database/index.php, Todd FG, Stermitz FR, Schultheis P, Knight AP, Traub-Dargatz JL, 1995. As a result, neighbouring plants may become smothered leading to a decrease in biodiversity and a reduction in crop yield. Parsons W T, Cuthbertson E G, 1992. Germination and Seedling Growth of Convolvulus arvensis L. and Cyperus rotundus L. under the Allelopathic Influence of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (L.) Leaves Matic R, Black ID, 1994. Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science, Vol. Effects of adjuvants and environment during plant development on glyphosate absorption and translocation in field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis). http://www.theplantlist.org. Organisms associated with the family Convolvulaceae and their potential for biological control of Convolvulus arvensis. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 120. There was no effect of salinity or the aqueous leaf extract on seed germination. Bindweeds and their biological control. �N���}�+�鎝��\I�|ʧ�tb�Bڿ���V�DE3����E�M����fp��j��,S6Q��*w�XL�`�z�F����Xqa�6��� u]���3%d4�t��k!��1��nȊ�ˁ��Ǒ�O� ����܅5���M�n�zw�2���mA�J��_ ZD_nI�EdŇ�95��p�g]�2hhj��ᕰܲ��a��2� ��0 Technical Bulletin, Agricultural Research Institute, Cyprus, No. In addition, C. arvensis plants can harbour the viruses that cause potato virus X disease, tomato spotted wilt and vaccinium false bottom (DiTomaso and Healy, 2006). In: Proceedings of the Seventh East African Weed Science Conference, 1979. in wheat, barley, maize, legumes and sugar beet), of pastures and of horticulture (in vegetables, vineyards, and tree crops). Anon, 1987. H��W�n��}�W��`��;I�ibg�K&Na ���lR�TIJ����>�,j"�(HÀ̋D�}[k�����O�o7�>> ��o�M�xa:���[��\�8f�r�cæ���:7�������ݗ|��&_~f�~����=��=�D�G1s��ZZV�7_Yq�~s�|��m�~)��#�x��� �J��X��9rg�@��?���I����R;z_�]���}�r�b���gp���~b�O�;�����ɝ >?�ɿ���1���=$CD.�E. The work by Judah Folkman 14 in cancer therapy illustrates the effect of antiangiogenesis on reducing tumor growth. sweet potato) would be necessary. A foliar disease of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) caused by Phomopsis convolvulus. Plant Protection Quarterly, 9(1):12-14, Boldt PE, Sobhian R, 1993. Chandra Singh DJ, Rao KN, Singh DJC, 1973. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 79-82. Field Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) Control and Winter Wheat Response to Post Herbicides Application. The root system has both deep vertical roots and shallow horizontal lateral roots. morningglory. Survey of weeds in conservation and conventionally tilled grain fields in Montana. Convolvulus arvensis var. C. arvensis has been reported to grow best in areas with moderate to good rainfall, with well drained soils, however, it can also tolerate periods of drought (Texas Invasives, 2016). Beiträge zur Tropischen Landwirtschaft und Veterinärmedizin. C. arvensis produces a deep perennial root system with the ability to compete vigorously with crops for moisture and nutrients. Technical Bulletin, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, No.17:29-36, BioNET-EAFRINET, 2015. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm. Weed Technology, 5(2):411-415. 132-135. Saghir A R, 1977. Subsurface layering of trifluralin for field bindweed control in cropland. Version 1.1. Giorgadze R D, Nikolaĭshvili A A, Dzimistarishvili N B, 1988. Invasives database. However, it has been suggested that it was most likely introduced into the USA as a contaminant of seeds (both agricultural and horticultural) (National Park Service, 2016). Again, excellent control was obtained after two seasons (Holm et al., 1977). Weed flora of Andhra Pradesh. Find the perfect convolvulus arvensis stock photo. For example picloram, 2,4-D, MCPA, dicamba and glyphosate (Wiese and Lavake, 1985; Westra et al., 1992; Matic and Black, 1994; USDA-FS, 2016). The effect of soil-acting herbicides versus hand-weeding in tef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Competitive effects of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) in wheat, barley and field peas. C. arvensis occupies disturbed and cleared ground. For example, Convolvulus siculus has flower petals which are white or tinged bluish-lilac, about 6 mm long, C. farinosus has shorter petals 11-16 mm long, white in colour and tinged pinkish purple (the petals of C. arvensis grow to 20 mm) whilst C. sagittatus has much shorter petals 9mm long, white in colour to pink with purple centre (Bio-EAFRINET, 2016). PANS, 19:223-229. Depending on the legislation and category of declaration, the weed is subject to prohibition of sale and of movement of propagules (either on its own or as a contaminant of agricultural produce). Paris, France: EPPO. The biology and host spectrum of some stenophagous insects found on Convolvulus and Calystegia spp. Specific to Convolvulus spp. Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) control with various herbicide combinations. Weeds of the United States and their control. Leaves alternate, petiolate, variable in shape, lanceolate or ovate to narrow-oblong, 1.2-5.0cm long. In the 1970s, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) initiated a programme for the biological control of field bindweed; two biological control agents have been released in North America so far. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 12(1):67-71; 16 ref. Mycopath. In: XVII Congreso de la Asociación Latinoamericana de Malezas (ALAM) I Congreso Iberoamericano de Ciencia de las Malezas, IV Congreso Nacional de Ciencia de Malezas, Matanzas, Cuba, 8 al 11 de noviembre del 2005 [XVII Congreso de la Asociación Latinoamericana de Malezas (ALAM) I Congreso Iberoamericano de Ciencia de las Malezas, IV Congreso Nacional de Ciencia de Malezas, Matanzas, Cuba, 8 al 11 de noviembre del 2005. Holm et al. http://pnwmoths.biol.wwu.edu/. Convolvulus arvensis var. Leaves are mostly hairless, ovate (egg-shaped with broad end at base)-oblong to lanceolate(lance-like) in shape, up to 7.5 cm long by 3 cm width, with a notched base. Relationships between plant growth stage and 2,4-D and glyphosate behaviour in field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.). Abstract In field trials conducted at Freeling, near Adelaide, the effects were evaluated of the density of C. arvensis stems on the yields of wheat cv. Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control Technical Bulletin, No. linearifolius Choisy. Saghir AR, 1977. Aerial growth dies off in autumn with the onset of cold weather and new growth from roots and crowns occurs in spring, with plants flowering from late spring through summer and sometimes into autumn. C. arvensis, commonly known as bindweed, is a climbing herbaceous perennial native to Eurasia. McClay AS, Littlefield JL, Kashefi J, 1999. The integration of some agronomic factors on grain yield of wheat at Njoro. (1977) also list C. arvensis as a weed of sugarbeet, cotton, tobacco, tea, potato, orchards, pineapples, vegetables, flax and lucerne. angustatus Ledeb. It is also a weed banned from importation into Australia under national legislation. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. C. arvensis produced a large number of seed which can remain viable for up to 20 years. Wang R, Kok L T, 1985. C. arvensis has 'hard' seeds which, when fresh, require scarification and later require alternating temperatures. Biocontrol News and Information, 6(4):303-310, Warner LC, Arnold WR, Peterson LG, 1974. However, Discover Life (2016) state that there is a large number of varieties, for example, more than sixty have been identified in Europe. The bindweeds Calystegia sepium and Convolvulus arvensis are difficult to control chemically. New York, USA: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd. 355 pp. C. arvensis has the ability to seriously impede harvesting of annual crops, because the crop becomes entangled with the twining stems. Vegetation of Tsokar lake and Puga valley, Trans-Himalaya. Weed Science, 34(6):811-816. 307-310. The defoliating moth Emmelia trabealis (Lep. Convolvulus arvensis L., Field Bindweed (Convolvulaceae). Field Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) Crop Impacts: Potatoes, beans, tomatoes and grain fields. perennial morningglory. Weed hosts of root-knot nematodes in tomato fields. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Sibirskii Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki, No.5:9-13, Ormeno-Nunez J, Reeleder RD, Watson AK, 1988. creeping jenny. As its common name implies, this is a species often seen on field boundaries, but it also occurs on scrubby wasteland and, given … C. arvensis grows rapidly and will compete with native vegetation for nutrients, moisture, space and light. Parsons WT, Cuthbertson EG, 1992. Weed Science, 37(6):830-835, Muhammad Da'u, Al-Saghir AR, 1986. Bindweed grows all over the world – from Europe to China, and from Canada to South America. Ivanova RG, Kazantseva AS, Tuganpv VV, 1975. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 113(6):365-367. Weed control in wheat and barley in the Middle East. Turakulov I, 1972. 2:32-35, US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Compendium record. Saghir A R, Al-Hamidi M D, Upadhyay R K, 1993. It is troublesome in numerous crops, but is especially problematic in cereals, beans, and potatoes. On weed control in cotton. NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species, Competition - monopolizing resources; Ecosystem change / habitat alteration. Plant Protection Bulletin, Department of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Yemen Arab Republic. Giorgadze RD, Nikolaishvili AA, Dzimistarishvili NB, 1988. SPECIES: Convolvulus arvensis Choose from the following categories of information. It can take 3 or more years of exclusion from light before Field Bindweed will die off. Tropane alkaloids and toxicity of, Tóth P, Cagán L, 2005. In: Flora Europa, 3 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 23 (3), 282-285. In the USA, Polygonum convolvulus may also be mistaken for C. arvensis however, its leaves are more pointed (National Park Service, 2016). Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); vegetative spread. : Noctuidae) and the tortoise beetle Hypocassida subferruginea (Col.: Chrysomelidae) were selected for preliminary open-field tests. The effect of soil-acting herbicides versus hand-weeding in tef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) ZCj����y��dSa��� 3��i�ͬ���ϣҜ�g �LGkb�e�а/�Cձ�Q0r4�atZ�l��ڕ� -Sx�9����������w�����. Egamberdiev AM, Suleimanov SM, 1985. Convolvulus arvensis is a long-lived (perennial) herb with twining or prostrate stems. Sepals free, obtuse, 2.5-4.5 mm long. 692 pp. However, results were of such study were inconclusive and need to be repeated and additional tests in the lab with critical test species (e.g. #3488. 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. Weeds of California and Other Western States. http://www.texasinvasives.org/invasives_database/index.php, The Plant List, 2013. Weed Science, 32(4):472-476. Field bindweed is a deep-rooted and drought-tolerant perennial weed that can hardly be controlled once it has become established in wheat. In Russia, Galium aparine and Alopecurus spp. First report of foliar blight of Convolvulus arvensis from Pakistan. In: XVII Congreso de la Asociación Latinoamericana de Malezas (ALAM) I Congreso Iberoamericano de Ciencia de las Malezas, IV Congreso Nacional de Ciencia de Malezas, Matanzas, Cuba, 8 al 11 de noviembre del 2005. Wheat variety Galaxy was sown as a test crop. A minimum of two seasons appear to be necessary for a satisfactory outcome. Field bindweed Convolvulus arvensis L. Pennsylvania, USA: USDA Forest Service. 23 (3), 295-299. Dun in 1991, using a … 537-544. The harmfulness of the predominant weed species in wheat. Convolvulus arvensis var. 18 (1), 71-75. Vegetation of Tsokar lake and Puga valley, Trans-Himalaya. Whitworth JW, Muzik TJ, 1967. The genus Convolvulus contains around 250 species. In: Biological control programmes in Canada 2001-2012 [ed. Many fields of this rotation have been converted to no‐tillage or reduced tillage, so perennial weeds such as C. arvensis have become more troublesome since they cannot be … Characteristics of the weed infestation of cotton crops on virgin lands of the Tadzhik part of the Golodnaya Steppe. Mulamula H A, Jumba M, Martin M, 1980. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology, Vol. (artwork), Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); close-up of flowers. 52 (2), 230-234. http://versita.metapress.com/link.asp?target=contribution&id=428087616X360N23 DOI:10.2478/v10045-012-0036-1. Adobe PDF Library 15.0 C. arvensis is generally present all over the world, but it is not a major weed in most of these areas (Holm et al., 1977). This species is present in most parts of the world where it has been accidentally introduced as a contaminant of both agricultural and horticultural seed. Pacific northwest moths., USA. Plant Protection Quarterly, 9(3):111-113. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK: CABI, 307-309. 12 (1), 67-71. The weed does not generally appear to be a problem in areas frequently grazed by ruminants. Annual crops such as cereals and grain legumes appear particularly susceptible to yield loss from C. arvensis with yield reductions of 20-80% recorded (Phillips and Timmons, 1954; Black et al., 1994). Swan DG, Chancellor RJ, 1976. Dirasat, 13(8):141-147, Mulamula HA, Jumba M, Martin M, 1980. Trotter) under Ethiopian conditions. 19 (1), 59-70. http://www.wssp.org.pk/6-19-1-59-70.pdf. CABI, Undated. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Tadzhikskoi SSR, Otdelenie Biologicheskikh Nauk, 2:14-18. Biologicheskie Nauki, 18(1):71-75, Kamran Saleem, Arshad HMI, Babar MM, 2015. The adaptation of weed plants to certain crops. There are two varieties: Application of the latter two chemicals results in persistent soil residues over a considerable period, which restricts cropping. Weed Research, 38:175-182. Plants typically develop large patches and are difficult to control. Aqueous leaf extract of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) was evaluated alone and in combination with NaCl for its effect on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum sp.). As such, it is likely that the distribution of this species is likely to increase. Texas, USA: Texas Invasive Plant and Pest Council. https://www.na.fs.fed.us/fhp/invasive_plants/weeds/field_bindweed.pdf, USDA-NRCS, 2016. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. 163: Research in weed science 1980:2-27, IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2015. Convolvulus arvensis - Field Bindweed. Field bindweed is considered one of the most noxious weeds of agricultural fields throughout temperate regions of the world. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. It should be noted that its non-appearance in the accompanying "Distribution Table" is not a firm indication of its absence in a country.

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